The Ruger 10/22 has a huge cult following and tons of aftermarket parts that completely change how the gun handles. It's reliable and Ruger has a good warranty and service reputation. .22LR is the cheapest caliber and the 10/22 is capable of shooting even the budget Freedom Bucket stuff, as well as subsonic rounds if you want to play around with suppressors. You can very much learn all the fundamentals of firearm handling, care, and sighting with it. Dumping a 100rd drum of 22 down range as fast as possible is really fun.
>the less complex parts that can go wrong
The 10/22 uses a direct blowback system, so there's no real barrel locking mechanism to speak of. A modern bolt action would typically have more moving parts than a semiauto .22. A large calibre rifle demands optics rated for such powerful impulses, so you'll have to put good money in to an optic, whereas the cheap red dots and feature-rich scopes found on Amazon under various brand names are rated well for even the stronger .22WMR